Internet history – Sputnik 1
- 1957 – USSR launched sputnik 1
- Oct. 4, 1957, radio-transmitted beeps from the first man-made object to orbit the Earth stunned and frightened the U.S., and the country's reaction to the "October surprise" changed computing forever.
Internet history – Modem
- 1958 Bell Labs researchers invent the modem (modulator - demodulator), which converts digital signals to electrical (analog) signals and back, enabling communication between computers.
Internet history – ARPA
- 1958 U.S. Government Creates ARPA
- The United States government creates the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in response to Sputnik launch
Internet history - J.C.R. Licklider
- J.C.R. Licklider - the first director of IT research at ARPA.
Internet history - J.C.R. Licklider
- Licklider wrote "Man-Computer Symbiosis" in 1960
- Indexed databases. "Implicit in the idea of man-computer symbiosis are the requirements that information be retrievable both by name and by pattern and that it be accessible through procedures much faster than serial search."
- Machine learning in the form of "self-organizing" programs. "Computers will in due course be able to devise and simplify their own procedures for achieving stated goals."
- Dynamic linking of programs and applications, or "real-time concatenation of preprogrammed segments and closed subroutines which the human operator can designate and call into action simply by name."
- More and better methods for input and output. "In generally available computers, there is almost no provision for any more effective, immediate man-machine communication than can be achieved with an electric typewriter."
- Tablet input and handwriting recognition. "It will be necessary for the man and the computer to draw graphs and pictures and to write notes and equations to each other on the same display surface."
- Speech recognition. "The interest stems from realization that one can hardly take a ... corporation president away from his work to teach him to type."
Internet history – Packet-Switching
- 1961 Leonard Kleinrock pioneers the packet-switching concept in his Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) doctoral thesis about queueing theory: Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.
Internet history – Intergalactic Network
- 1962 J.C.R. Licklider Conceives Intergalactic Network
- J.C.R. Licklider writes memos about his Intergalactic Network concept of networked computers and becomes the first head of the computer research program at ARPA.
Internet history – ARPANET
- 1962 – Creation of ARPANET
- The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)
- ARPANET was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense.
- ARPANET - an early packet switching network
- Leonard Kleinrock published paper on packet-switching theory
Internet history – ASCII
- 1963 ASCII Is Developed
- The first universal standard for computers, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Exchange) is developed by a joint industry-government committee. ASCII permits machines from different manufacturers to exchange data.
Internet history – Hypertext
- Ted Nelson coined the terms hypertext and hypermedia in 1963 and published them in 1965.
- Ted Nelson founded Project Xanadu in 1960, with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface.
- Nelson has stated that some aspects of his vision are being fulfilled by Tim Berners-Lee's invention of the World Wide Web, but he dislikes the World Wide Web, XML and all embedded markup – regarding Berners-Lee's work as a gross over-simplification of his original vision
Internet history – Packet-Switching
- 1964 Paul Baran, Donald Davies Develop Message Blocks/Packet-switching
- The Rand Corporation's Paul Baran develops message blocks in the U.S., while Donald Watts Davies, at the National Physical Laboratory in Britain, simultaneously creates a similar technology called packet-switching. The technology revolutionizes data communications.
Internet history – Packet-Switching
Internet history – WAN
- 1965 Lawrence Roberts & Thomas Marill Create First Wide-area Network
- Lawrence Roberts (MIT) and Thomas Marill get an ARPA contract to create the first wide-area network (WAN) connection via long distant dial-up between a TX-2 computer in Massachusetts and a Q-32 computer in California. The system confirms that packet switching offers the most promising model for communication between computers.
Internet history – ARPAnet project
- 1966 ARPAnet Project Initiated
- Directing ARPA’s computer research program, Robert Taylor initiates the ARPAnet project, the foundation for today’s Internet..
Internet history – ARPAnet design
- 1966 ARPAnet Design Begins
- Lawrence Roberts leads ARPAnet design discussions and publishes first ARPAnet design paper: "Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication." Wesley Clark suggests the network is managed by interconnected ‘Interface Message Processors’ in front of the major computers. Called IMPs, they evolve into today’s routers..
Internet history – ARPAnet IMP
Internet history – Flight simulator
1967 Danny Cohen develops the first real-time visual flight simulator on a
general purpose computer and the first real-time radar simulator.
1967 – plans for ARPANET were published
Internet history – Engelbart
- 1968 Engelbart Makes His Mother of All Demos Presentation
- Engelbart makes his "Mother of All Demos" presentation where he introduces hypertexting and collaborative computing for the first time.
Internet history – Host Level Protocols
- 1968 UCLA Develops ARPAnet Host Level Protocols
- Steve Crocker heads UCLA Network Working Group under Professor Leonard Kleinrock to develop host level protocols for ARPAnet communication in preparation for becoming the first node. The group, which includes Vint Cerf and Jon Postel, lays the foundation for protocols of the modern Internet.
Internet history – First Data Packets
1969 UCLA Team Sends First Data Packets
The first data packets are sent between networked computers on October 29th by Charley Kline at UCLA, under supervision of Professor Leonard Kleinrock. The first attempt resulted in the system crashing as the letter G of “Login” was entered. The second attempt was successful.
Internet history – ARPANET 1969
Internet history – IMP Links
1969 IMP Network Links First Four Nodes
The physical Interface Message Processor (IMP) network is constructed, linking four nodes: University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and University of Utah
Internet history – ARPANET 1972
1972 – 23 host computers 15 Nodes
Remote logins: With ARPANET, people could use one computer system to log into another one miles away. For the first time, researchers and scientists could access databases full of information without having to physically travel to another computer site. In 1971, ARPANET integrated the first Terminal Interface Processor (TIP), which enabled users at individual computer terminals to dial into the network
Internet history – Email
- 1972 Ray Tomlinson Invents Email
- Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents the email program to send messages across a distributed network.
- The "@" sign is chosen from the punctuation keys on Tomlinson's Model 33 Teletype to separate local from global emails, making "user@host" the email standard.
Internet history – Public
- Robert Kahn Demonstrates ARPAnet to Public
- Robert Kahn demonstrates the ARPAnet to the public for the first time by connecting 20 different computers at the International Computer Communication Conference, and in doing so, imparts the importance of packet-switching technology..
Internet history – IANA
- 1972 Jon Postel Helps Create First Internet Address Registry
- While at the Information Science Institute, Jon Postel helps create the first Internet address registry, which later becomes Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). This administers IP addresses and other critical Internet functions.
Internet history – ARPANET 1973
Internet history – Ethernet
- 1973 Ethernet Invented at Xerox Parc
- Faced with the "good fortune to be the first person in the world to be given the problem of connecting a roomful of computers," Bob Metcalfe co-invented the Ethernet at Xerox Parc.
Internet history – TCP/IP
- 1973 TCP/IP Protocol Development Begins
- Development begins on what will eventually be called TCP/IP protocol by a group headed by Vint Cerf (Stanford) and Robert Kahn (DARPA). The new protocol will allow diverse computer networks to interconnect and communicate with each other.
Internet history – TCP/IP
Internet history – International Link
- 1973 University College of London Establishes First International ARPAnet Link
- The first international connection to the ARPAnet is made by University College of London (England) via NORSAR (Norway).
Internet history – NIC
- 1974 Elizabeth Feinler Begins Leading NIC
- Elizabeth “Jake” Feinler begins to help lead SRI International’s Network Information Center (NIC), where her group eventually develops the first Internet “yellow-” and “white-page” servers, the first query-based network host name and address (WHOIS) server, and the Host Naming Registry for the Internet. As a part of this effort she and her group develop the top-level domain naming schemes of .com, .edu, .gov, .mil, .org, and .net.
Internet history – “Internet”
- 1974 Vint Cerf, Robert Kahn Coin 'Internet'
- Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection" which specifies in detail the design of a Transmission Control Program (TCP) and coins the term “Internet” for the first time.
Internet history – Telenet
- 1974 Bolt Beranek and Newman Founds Telenet
- Lawrence Roberts helps Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) found Telenet, the first public packet data service, a commercial version of ARPAnet.
Internet history – CSNET
- 1977 Lawrence Landweber Creates Computer Science Network
- Lawrence Landweber creates CSNET (Computer Science Network), a network for all US university and industrial computer research groups. By 1984, over 180 university, industrial, and government computer science departments are participating in CSNET.
Internet history – Routing Protocol
- 1980 Perlman Develops Key Routing Protocols
- Perlman designs IS-S (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) protocol for routing IP, which continues to flourish today, and the Spanning Tree algorithm, which allows the Ethernet to handle large clouds of data.
Internet history – Public WAN
- 1982 First Public WAN Initiated
- Teus Hagen initiates the European Unix Network (EUnet) as the EUUG dial-up service, which becomes the first public wide area network in Europe, serving four initial “backbones.”.
Internet history – ARPAnet TCP/IP
- 1983 ARPAnet Transitions to TCP/IP
- The ARPAnet changes its core networking protocols from Network Control Programs to the more flexible and powerful TCP/IP protocol suite, marking the start of the modern Internet..
Internet history – DNS
- 1983 Paul Mockapetris Invents Domain Name System
- Paul Mockapetris expands the Internet beyond its academic origins by inventing the Domain Name System (DNS). John Klensin helps facilitate early procedural and definitional work for DNS administration and top-level domain definitions.
Internet history – Maxthink
- In 1984, expanding on ideas from futurist Ted Nelson, Neil Larson's commercial DOS Maxthink outline program added angle bracket hypertext jumps (adopted by later web browsers) to and from ASCII, batch, and other Maxthink files up to 32 levels deep. In 1986, he released his DOS Houdini network browser program that supported 2500 topics cross-connected with 7500 links in each file.
Internet history – RIPE
- 1988 Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE) Created
- Francois Flückiger convenes the founding meeting that leads to the creation of Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE), the nonprofit organization that conducts technical coordination of the European Internet infrastructure.
Internet history – ISP
- 1988 Daniel Karrenberg Helps Build First Pan-European ISP
- Daniel Karrenberg helps build EUnet, the first pan-European Internet Service Provider.
- He also leads the formation of the world’s first Regional Internet Registry, the RIPE Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC).
Internet history – IRC
- IRC (Internet Relay Chat) was born during summer 1988 when Jarkko "WiZ" Oikarinen wrote the first IRC client and server at the University of Oulu, Finland.
Internet history – HyperRez
- 1988, Peter Scott and Earle Fogel expanded the earlier HyperRez concept in creating Hytelnet which added jumps to telnet sites
Internet history – HyperBBS
- In 1989, Neil Larson created both HyperBBS and HyperLan which both allow multiple users to create/edit both topics and jumps for information and knowledge annealing which, in concept, the columnist John C. Dvorak says pre-dated Wiki by many years
Internet history – WWW
- 1989 Tim Berners-Lee Creates WWW
- At CERN, the European Physical Laboratory, Tim Berners-Lee creates the World Wide Web. Robert Cailliau is a key proponent of the project, and helps Berners-Lee author a proposal for funding. Later, Cailliau develops, along with Nicola Pellow, the first web browser for the Mac OS operating system.
Internet history – WAIS
- 1989 Brewster Kahle Invents First Internet Publishing System
- Brewster Kahle invents the Internet’s first publishing system, WAIS (Wide Area Information Server) and founds WAIS, Inc. A precursor to today’s search engines, WAIS is one of the first programs to index large amounts of data and make it searchable across large networks.
Internet history – Browser
- The first web browser, WorldWideWeb, was developed in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee for the NeXT Computer (at the same time as the first web server for the same machine)
Internet history – EFF
- 1990 Electronic Frontier Foundation Founded
- John Perry Barlow co-founds the Electronic Frontier Foundation to provide legal aid to defend individuals and new technologies from “misdirected legal threats” related to technology.
Internet history – Linux
- 1990 Linus Torvalds creates Linux and becomes a leading supporter of Open Source software.
Internet history – Search Engine
- Archie is a tool for indexing FTP archives, allowing people to find specific files. It is considered to be the first Internet search engine. The original implementation was written in 1990 by Alan Emtage.
Internet history – PGP
- 1991 Phil Zimmermann Creates PGP Email Encryption
- Philip Zimmermann creates Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), an email encryption software package that's published for free. Originally designed as a human rights tool, PGP becomes one of the most widely used email encryption softwares in the world.
Internet history – Information Superhighway
- 1991 Al Gore Creates Bill to Fund "Information Superhighway"
- Al Gore creates the High-performance Computing and Communications Act of 1991 (the Gore Bill), which allocates $600 million for high performance computing and helps create the National Research and Educational Network. The Gore Bill also creates the National Information Infrastructure, known as the Information Superhighway.
Internet history – WWW public
- 1991 World Wide Web Opens to Public
- The World Wide Web is made available to the public for the first time on the Internet.
Internet history – Lynx
- 1992 the Lynx Lynx is a highly configurable text-based web browser. development history notes their project origin was based on the browser concepts from Neil Larson and Maxthink In 1989, he declined joining the Mosaic browser team with his preference for knowledge/wisdom creation over distributing information
Internet history – Cello
- Thomas R. Bruce of the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School started 1992, to develop Cello. When released on 8 June 1993 it was one of the first graphical web browsers, and the first to run on Windows
Internet history – Mosaic
- 1993 NCSA Releases Mosaic Browser
- Mark Andreessen and Eric Bina create the Mosaic browser at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), which helps popularize the World Wide Web among the general public.
- Running originally on Unix and soon ported to the Amiga and VMS platforms.
- Version 1.0 was released in September 1993
Internet history – Netscape
- Marc Lowell Andreessen. He is the co-author of Mosaic, the first widely used Web browser; co-founder of Netscape
- Mosaic Communications changed its name to Netscape Communications
- Netscape Communications Corporation. Netscape released its flagship Navigator product in October 1994
Internet history – NES
Internet history – VBS,Jscript,IIS
- JScript was also available for server-side scripting in Internet Information Server.
Internet history – Blogs, wikipedia
- 1994 – W3C was founded
- 1994 – Yahoo
- 1995 – JAVA released
- 1996 – Microsoft : VBS,Jscript, IIS
- 1998 – Google
- 1998 – Blogs First Appear
- 2001 – Jimmy Wales Launches Wikipedia
- 2003 – Wordpress
- 2004 – Facebook
- 2006 –Twitter
- interconnected networks are called an internetwork, or simply an internet. Internetworking is a combination of the words inter ("between") and networking; not internet-working or international-network.
- LAN (Local area network)
- WAN (Wide area network)
- Intranet (internal kinda internet)
- Internetworking (INTERNET)
- connect two or more local area networks via some sort of wide area network.
- Two architectural models are commonly used to describe the protocols and methods used in internetworking.
- 1. Open System Interconnection (OSI)
- 2. Internet Protocol Suite, also called the TCP/IP model
Networking models - OSI
- Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model, the OSI Reference Model, or simply the OSI model. It was published in 1984 by both the ISO, as standard ISO 7498, and the former CCITT
OSI Model Vs TCP/IP Model
TCP/IP IP address
IP: CLASS A, B, C
TCP/IP Communication Example
- Example: Download a Webpage from the Internet
1. Enter website in browser
2. DNS client creates a message
DNS client sends a message to the Transport layer requesting the IP address for website.com
3. Create a datagram
The Transport layer adds the UDP header containing the source and destination port to the
4. Create a packet
The Network layer adds the IP header containing the source and destination IP address
to the datagram.
It adds its own IP address as the source and the DNS server IP address as the destination.
The PC knows the DNS server’s IP address because the router provided the PC with it
when it assigned its local IP address. The resulting packet is sent to the Link layer.
5. Determine destination MAC address
The Link layer determines the destination IP address for this packet is not on the local network.
It therefore needs to send the packet to its “default gateway” which in this example is the router.
The Link Layer can’t create the frame because it doesn’t know the MAC address for the default
gateway. The Address Resolution Protocol or ARP was created to solve this problem.
6. Create and transmit a frame
After using ARP to get the MAC address for its default gateway, the Link Layer can
complete the frame for the DNS transaction.
It adds the source and destination MAC addresses to the packet to create a frame.
The source MAC address is its own and the destination MAC address is that of the dgw.
This frame is then sent to the Physical layer to transmit the frame’s bits.
7. NAT and forward frame to Internet
The router receives the frame from the PC, opens the packet and determines the destination
IP address is not on the local network, so it must forward this frame to the Internet.
The router has to change the source MAC from its local network MAC to its Wide Area Network.
The local router forwards this new frame to the ISP's router.
8. Forward frame to DNS server
The router at the Internet Service Provider receives the frame and opens the packet to find the
destination IP address. It determines the destination IP address belongs to its DNS server.
9. DNS server receives frame
The DNS server’s PHY receives the bits and forwards the frame to the Link layer.
The Link layer finds its MAC address as the destination so it forwards the packet to the
Network layer. The Network layer opens the packet and finds its IP address as the destination.
It still needs to pay attention to the message, so it forwards it up to the Transport layer.
The Transport layer opens the datagram and finds it is being sent to port 53. The DNS server
has a process running and listening for traffic on this port, so the message is forwarded to it.
10. DNS translates and generates reply
DNS Server determines the IP address for website.com and generates a reply
message containing it. The message is sent back to the Transport layer.
The Transport layer adds the port information and creates the datagram.
The Network layer adds the IP information and creates the packet.
The Link layer adds the MAC information and creates the frame.
The Physical layer transmits the frame’s bits to the router.
11. Forward frame to local router
The ISP’s router receives the frame, finds its MAC address, and sends it to its Network layer to
determine the destination IP address. It finds that the packet belongs to our local router’s IP
address, so it sends the packet back down to its Link layer.
The Link layer attaches new source and destination MAC addresses to the packet then
sends the frame to our local router.
12. NAT translation in local router
When the local router receives the packet from the ISP’s router, it consults its NAT translation
table to determine which local host to forward it to. It finds an entry with an internet destination
port number of “1” in the translation table. The corresponding local IP address and port # are
substituted into the packet that will be sent to the local network.
13. Frame forwarded to PC
The new packet is sent to the router’s Link layer where the source and destination MAC addresses are added creating the frame.
The router knows the destination MAC address corresponding to the destination IP address by
consulting its ARP table. This frame is then sent to the physical layer to be transmitted on the
14. DNS client delivers IP address
When the Frame arrives at the PC the message is sent to the DNS client.
The DNS client then provides the IP address for website.com to the HTTP client.
15. HTTP client creates message
Now that the HTTP client has the IP address for website.com (130:27:45:69) it can generate the
message to download the HTML file for this website.
HTTP Client Request
- Example session
- Client Request
- GET /index.html HTTP/1.1
- Host: www.example.com
HTTP Server response
- HTTP/1.1 200 OK
- Date: Mon, 23 May 2005 22:38:34 GMT
- Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
- Content-Encoding: UTF-8
- Content-Length: 138
- Last-Modified: Wed, 08 Jan 2003 23:11:55 GMT
- Server: Apache/188.8.131.52 (Unix) (Red-Hat/Linux)
- ETag: "3f80f-1b6-3e1cb03b"
- Accept-Ranges: bytes
- Connection: close
- <head> <title>An Example Page</title> </head>
- Hello World, this is a very simple HTML document.
HTTP status codes 1xx
- 1xx status code indicates a provisional response, consisting only of the Status-Line and optional headers (only http 1.1)
- Request received, continuing process.
- 100 Continue
- The server has received the request headers and the client should proceed to send the request body
HTTP status codes 2xx
- 2xx status codes indicates the action requested by the client was received, understood, accepted, and processed successfully
- 200 OK
- Standard response for successful HTTP requests. The actual response will depend on the request method used. In a GET request, the response will contain an entity corresponding to the requested resource. In a POST request, the response will contain an entity describing or containing the result of the action
HTTP status codes 3xx
- 3xx Redirection
- status code indicates the client must take additional action to complete the request. Many of these status codes are used in URL redirection
- 301 Moved Permanently
- This and all future requests should be directed to the given URI
HTTP status codes 4xx
- The 4xx class of status code is intended for situations in which the client seems to have erred. Except when responding to a HEAD request
- 404 Not Found
- The requested resource could not be found but may be available in the future. Subsequent requests by the client are permissible
URL = Uniform Resource Locator
- Uniform Resource Locators were defined in Request for Comments (RFC) 1738 in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web
- A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
URL = Uniform Resource Locator
- A typical URL could have the form http://www.example.com/index.html
- protocol (http)
- Hostname (www.example.com)
- file name (index.html)
URL = Uniform Resource Locator
- Examples of popular schemes include http, ftp, mailto, file, data, and irc.
- A "host", consisting of either a registered name or an IP address. Example: juhax.com
- An optional port number, separated from the hostname by a colon example: http://juhax.com:8888
- A path, which contains data, usually organized in hierarchical form. Example juhax.com/test/test.html
- An optional query ?
- An optional fragment #
- A URL is simply a URI that happens to point to a resource over a network.
- absolute URIs
Uniform Resource Identifier - URI
- in HTML, the value of the src attribute of the img element provides a URI reference, as does the value of the href attribute of the a or link element.
- absolute URIs
- URI references
Uniform Resource Name - URN
- A Uniform Resource Name (URN) can be compared to a person's name, while a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) can be compared to their street address. In other words, a URN identifies an item and a URL provides a method for finding it.
- To gain access to the book, its location is needed, for which a URL would have to be specified
ICMP / PING
- The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite. It is used by network devices, like routers, to send error messages and operational information indicating, for example, that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached.
- Ping (networking utility)
- The ping utility was written by Mike Muuss in December 1983 as a tool to troubleshoot problems in an IP network.
(C)2017 Juha Soderqvist